RF Test and Measurement

Specialized techniques and instruments for measuring performance at higher frequencies.

Fundamentals of RF and Microwave Power Measurements (Part 4)


Keysight Technologies

Part 4 overviews various instrumentation for measuring RF and microwave power, including spectrum analyzers, microwave receivers, network/spectrum analyzers, and the most accurate method, power sensors/meters. It begins with the unknown signal, of arbitrary modulation format, and draws application-oriented comparisons for selection of the best instrumentation technology and products. Most of the chapter is devoted to the most accurate method, power meters

Using Error Vector Magnitude Measurements to Analyze and Troubleshoot Vector-Modulated Signals


Keysight Technologies

Provides a useful EVM troubleshooting decision tree.

Error vector magnitude (EVM) measurements can provide a great deal of insight into the performance of digitally modulated signals. With proper use, EVM and related measurements can pinpoint exactly the type of degradations present in a signal and can even help identify their sources. This note reviews the basics of EVM measurements on the Agilent Technologies 89400 vector signal analyzers, and outlines a general procedure that may be used to methodically track down even the most obscure signal problems.

Optimize Dynamic Range for Distortion Measurements


Keysight Technologies

This application note from Agilent describes the challenges of measuring distortion products from your device under test. The challenges arise from the need to measure weak distortion product and harmonic signals in the presence of strong carrier signals, combined with the fact that the analog components in the test instrumentation produce their own unwanted distortion signals.

Measuring the Nonlinearities of RF Amplifiers IP2/IP3



This application note, Measuring the Nonlinearities of RF Amplifiers Using Signal Generators and a Spectrum Analyzer, from Rohde-Schwarz covers the measurement of amplifier nonlinearities. It includes a very useful discussion of the relationship between harmonics and their intermodulation products. Particularly, the ratio between the second harmonic intercept point and IP2 is described. Several useful figures are supplied to aid understanding.

HP Phase Noise Seminar Notes

These notes from a seminar given by HP in the mid-80's serve as a useful reference for some of the fundamental relationships governing phase noise. Needless to say, some of the most recent techniques in phase noise measurements are not represented, but the mechanisms that generate phase noise are described in useful detail.

Getting Its Measure: Oscillator Phase Noise Measurement Techniques and Limitations


Rohde, U.L.; Poddar, A.K.; Apte, A.M.

This is a detailed article comparing phase noise measurement techniques and their advantages and disadvantages. You will need to be a member of the Microwave Theory and Techniques society of the IEEE to view the article for free. A purchase option may be available if you are not a member.


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