Pasternack's website offers a large selection of RF calculators and converters available for free for general use.
Pasternack's RF calculators and conversions section provides engineers valuable and easy-to-use tools ranging from complex mathematical formulas to simple conversions. Our RF and microwave calculators and converters will provide the figures you need for your radio frequency engineering needs. RF calculations and RF conversions include metric-standard, link budget, coax cable, power, attenuation, frequency and many more.
This website features a comprehensive glossary of RF and Microwave terms along with many "rules of thumb" practical articles. It is now affiliated with the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques society.
Coaxial cable connectors are a fundamental component for interfacing with RF devices up to hundreds of gigahertz. The frequency handling capability of coaxial connectors is based upon the dimensions of the inner and outer conductors, as well as the quality of precision in which the parts of the coaxial connector are constructed. Coaxial connectors are generally designed with either 50 or 75 ohms of impedance. The impedance of the coaxial connector is dictated by the dielectric material between the inner and outer conductors and their ratio.
Noise figure is often the key to characterizing a receiver and its ability to detect weak incoming signals in the presence of self-generated noise. The process of reducing noise figure begins with a solid understanding of the uncertainties in your components, subsystems and test setups. Quantifying those unknowns depends on flexible tools that provide accurate, reliable results.
Before you select a power meter and its associated sensors, make sure that you have taken the following four
steps, each of which can infl uence the accuracy, economy, and technical match to your application.
Part 1 introduces the historical basis for power measurements, and provides definitions for average, peak, and complex modulations. This application note overviews various sensor technologies needed for the diversity of test signals. It describes the hierarchy of international power traceability, yielding comparison to national standards at worldwide national measurement institutes (NMIs) like the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Part 2 presents all the viable sensor technologies required to exploit the wide range of unknown modulations and signals under test. It starts with explanations of the sensor technologies, and how they came to be to meet certain measurement needs. Sensor choices range from the venerable thermistor to the innovative thermocouple to more recent improvements in diode sensors. In particular, clever variations of diode combinations are presented, which achieve ultra-wide dynamic range and square-law detection for complex modulations.
Part 3 discusses the all-important theory and practice of expressing measurement uncertainty, mismatch considerations, signal flowgraphs, ISO 17025, and examples of typical calculations. Considerable detail is shown on
the ISO 17025, Guide for the Expression of Measurement Uncertainties, has become the international standard for determining operating specifications. Agilent has transitioned from ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994 to ISO 17025.