This online program has been designed for applications, production, manufacturing engineers and technicians as well as other professionals who need to have a solid background in the fundamentals of working with RF and wireless products. This four part program provides a thorough understanding of RF analytical tools, communications signals, RF devices and test instruments. Starting with basic analytical tools such as the decibel scale, S-parameters and the Smith Chart, this program covers test instrumentation, RF components, and modulation.
This interactive web page allows you to look at the output waveforms from a switching-type mixer, as well as a pure multiplication. You can change the RF and LO frequencies and update the graph.
This demo is included in the Online RF Technology Certification program from Besser Associates.
These lecture notes provide comprehensive coverage of mixer types as used in RF and microwave applications. Three approaches to producing the multiplication of two signals are described: using nonlinear behavior of a diode or transistor, switching, and sampling. Major mixer topologies are also introduced. These notes may be more detailed than what many people are looking for, but they are still worth reading over to gain an understanding of the different mixer strategies.
This app note gives a good understanding of the operation of switching type mixers. "Switching type" refers to the implementation of the mixing operation by using the diode or transistor as a switch that turns the RF signal on and off or inverts its polarity at the LO frequency. Another type of mixer implementation is to bias the diode so that it operates in the square law region so that the output includes the square of the input.
This public-domain book provides concise descriptions of concepts related to RF, radar, microwave components, and more.
This handbook is designed to aid electronic warfare and radar systems engineers in making general estimations regarding capabilities of systems. This handbook is sponsored by the NAVAIR Director of Electronic Warfare/Combat Systems Department.