PLL/Frequency Synthesis

Phase locked loops and other signal generation techniques such as frequency synthesis.

Online RF Technology Certification


Besser Associates

This online program has been designed for applications, production, manufacturing engineers and technicians as well as other professionals who need to have a solid background in the fundamentals of working with RF and wireless products. This four part program provides a thorough understanding of RF analytical tools, communications signals, RF devices and test instruments. Starting with basic analytical tools such as the decibel scale, S-parameters and the Smith Chart, this program covers test instrumentation, RF components, and modulation.

Quartz Crystal Resonators and Oscillators for Frequency Control and Timing Applications – A Tutorial


John R. Vig

This extensive tutorial provides a thorough foundation for the understanding of piezoelectric/crystal resonators properties and behaviors. The table of contents provides insight into just how comprehensive this tutorial is:

1. Applications and Requirements
2. Quartz Crystal Oscillators
3. Quartz Crystal Resonators
4. Oscillator Stability
5. Quartz Material Properties
6. Atomic Frequency Standards
7. Oscillator Comparison and Specification
8. Time and Timekeeping
9. Related Devices and Applications

Phase Noise Measurement Methods and Techniques (2012)


Kay Gheen, Keysight

These slides from a webinar presentation give a detailed overview of the principles of measuring phase noise. The underlying relationships between phase noise spectral energy, demodulated phase noise, frequency etc. are described. The presentation also includes a description of the "modern" definition of phase noise along with current measurement techniques.

Choosing a Phase Noise Measurement Technique


Terry Decker and Bob Temple

These seminar notes give a good discussion of the principles of phase noise. Specifically the authors describe the difference between measuring phase noise directly or using phase/frequency demodulation techniques. The notes describe details about the limitations and equipment performance requirements for making phase noise measurements using a variety of techniques. Since these notes are from an older archive, the latest techniques involving the use of correlation are not described.

HP Phase Noise Seminar Notes

These notes from a seminar given by HP in the mid-80's serve as a useful reference for some of the fundamental relationships governing phase noise. Needless to say, some of the most recent techniques in phase noise measurements are not represented, but the mechanisms that generate phase noise are described in useful detail.

Getting Its Measure: Oscillator Phase Noise Measurement Techniques and Limitations


Rohde, U.L.; Poddar, A.K.; Apte, A.M.

This is a detailed article comparing phase noise measurement techniques and their advantages and disadvantages. You will need to be a member of the Microwave Theory and Techniques society of the IEEE to view the article for free. A purchase option may be available if you are not a member.

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