This online program has been designed for applications, production, manufacturing engineers and technicians as well as other professionals who need to have a solid background in the fundamentals of working with RF and wireless products. This four part program provides a thorough understanding of RF analytical tools, communications signals, RF devices and test instruments. Starting with basic analytical tools such as the decibel scale, S-parameters and the Smith Chart, this program covers test instrumentation, RF components, and modulation.
This extensive tutorial provides a thorough foundation for the understanding of piezoelectric/crystal resonators properties and behaviors. The table of contents provides insight into just how comprehensive this tutorial is:
1. Applications and Requirements
2. Quartz Crystal Oscillators
3. Quartz Crystal Resonators
4. Oscillator Stability
5. Quartz Material Properties
6. Atomic Frequency Standards
7. Oscillator Comparison and Specification
8. Time and Timekeeping
9. Related Devices and Applications
Mismatch uncertainty is the result of reflections adding and subtracting from each other when more than one interface is present.
To use the calculator below, input a values into the fields and hit the enter key. The result will appear below.
You can choose different input formats from the drop down menu.
This workbook from the RF Technology Certification program demonstrates how to convert from dBm to milliwatts using approximation techniques without a calculator. An interactive calculator at the end demonstrates the process with values that you can enter yourself to practice.
This interactive web page allows you to look at the output waveforms from a switching-type mixer, as well as a pure multiplication. You can change the RF and LO frequencies and update the graph.
This demo is included in the Online RF Technology Certification program from Besser Associates.
These lecture notes provide comprehensive coverage of mixer types as used in RF and microwave applications. Three approaches to producing the multiplication of two signals are described: using nonlinear behavior of a diode or transistor, switching, and sampling. Major mixer topologies are also introduced. These notes may be more detailed than what many people are looking for, but they are still worth reading over to gain an understanding of the different mixer strategies.
This app note gives a good understanding of the operation of switching type mixers. "Switching type" refers to the implementation of the mixing operation by using the diode or transistor as a switch that turns the RF signal on and off or inverts its polarity at the LO frequency. Another type of mixer implementation is to bias the diode so that it operates in the square law region so that the output includes the square of the input.
This blog explores various topics in RF test and measurement, from the latest equipment to best practice techniques to ensure consistent results and understand uncertainty limitations.
My name is Ben Zarlingo and I'm an applications specialist for Keysight Technologies. I've been an electrical engineer working in test & measurement for several decades now, mostly in signal analysis. For the past 20 years I've been involved primarily in wireless and other RF testing.
This connector identifier guide features schematic drawings of over 50 different connector types in each gender. The guide also features a chart comparing the maximum frequency capability of each type. A small glossary of RF terms is also included.