This online program has been designed for applications, production, manufacturing engineers and technicians as well as other professionals who need to have a solid background in the fundamentals of working with RF and wireless products. This four part program provides a thorough understanding of RF analytical tools, communications signals, RF devices and test instruments. Starting with basic analytical tools such as the decibel scale, S-parameters and the Smith Chart, this program covers test instrumentation, RF components, and modulation.
Besser Associates and Microwave Journal magazine have presented a free webcast on Mixers and Frequency Conversion. This one-hour webcast has been presented by instructor Allen Podell, and the recording is now available for viewing. Frequency conversion is a critical function in all wireless systems. A key component used to accomplish this is the mixer. Designers need to understand different mixer topologies and specifications in order to meet their system requirements.
This interactive web page allows you to look at the output waveforms from a switching-type mixer, as well as a pure multiplication. You can change the RF and LO frequencies and update the graph.
This demo is included in the Online RF Technology Certification program from Besser Associates.
These lecture notes provide comprehensive coverage of mixer types as used in RF and microwave applications. Three approaches to producing the multiplication of two signals are described: using nonlinear behavior of a diode or transistor, switching, and sampling. Major mixer topologies are also introduced. These notes may be more detailed than what many people are looking for, but they are still worth reading over to gain an understanding of the different mixer strategies.
This app note gives a good understanding of the operation of switching type mixers. "Switching type" refers to the implementation of the mixing operation by using the diode or transistor as a switch that turns the RF signal on and off or inverts its polarity at the LO frequency. Another type of mixer implementation is to bias the diode so that it operates in the square law region so that the output includes the square of the input.
Instructor Earl McCune's presentation from the 2014 IEEE MTT symposium in Phoenix, AZ is available for downloading from the IEEE website. This presentation looks at the problem of providing high efficiency and linearity from a power transistor at the same time.
Pasternack's website offers a large selection of RF calculators and converters available for free for general use.
Pasternack's RF calculators and conversions section provides engineers valuable and easy-to-use tools ranging from complex mathematical formulas to simple conversions. Our RF and microwave calculators and converters will provide the figures you need for your radio frequency engineering needs. RF calculations and RF conversions include metric-standard, link budget, coax cable, power, attenuation, frequency and many more.
QUCS is a freeware circuit simulator that supports S-parameter analysis, among other types. It is available for Windows, Linux and OSX operating systems, with varying levels of support from the community.