Non-linear/Large Signal Components

Nonlinear RF components such as mixers and power amplifiers.

Online RF Technology Certification


Besser Associates

This online program has been designed for applications, production, manufacturing engineers and technicians as well as other professionals who need to have a solid background in the fundamentals of working with RF and wireless products. This four part program provides a thorough understanding of RF analytical tools, communications signals, RF devices and test instruments. Starting with basic analytical tools such as the decibel scale, S-parameters and the Smith Chart, this program covers test instrumentation, RF components, and modulation.

Mixer Lectures


S. Long, UCSB

These lecture notes provide comprehensive coverage of mixer types as used in RF and microwave applications. Three approaches to producing the multiplication of two signals are described: using nonlinear behavior of a diode or transistor, switching, and sampling. Major mixer topologies are also introduced. These notes may be more detailed than what many people are looking for, but they are still worth reading over to gain an understanding of the different mixer strategies.

Mixer Basics Primer


Ferenc Marki & Christopher Marki, Ph.D.

This app note gives a good understanding of the operation of switching type mixers. "Switching type" refers to the implementation of the mixing operation by using the diode or transistor as a switch that turns the RF signal on and off or inverts its polarity at the LO frequency. Another type of mixer implementation is to bias the diode so that it operates in the square law region so that the output includes the square of the input.

Pasternack RF Calculators and Conversions



Pasternack's website offers a large selection of RF calculators and converters available for free for general use.

Pasternack's RF calculators and conversions section provides engineers valuable and easy-to-use tools ranging from complex mathematical formulas to simple conversions. Our RF and microwave calculators and converters will provide the figures you need for your radio frequency engineering needs. RF calculations and RF conversions include metric-standard, link budget, coax cable, power, attenuation, frequency and many more.

RFPA Envelope Tracking


Earl McCune

Operating Modes of Dynamic Power Supply Transmitter Amplifiers

Any amplifier operated with a varying supply voltage is actually a three-port circuit, having two inputs and one output. When an amplifier is characterized as a three-port for dynamic supply voltage operation, three separate operating modes...


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