This online program has been designed for applications, production, manufacturing engineers and technicians as well as other professionals who need to have a solid background in the fundamentals of working with RF and wireless products. This four part program provides a thorough understanding of RF analytical tools, communications signals, RF devices and test instruments. Starting with basic analytical tools such as the decibel scale, S-parameters and the Smith Chart, this program covers test instrumentation, RF components, and modulation.
Mismatch uncertainty is the result of reflections adding and subtracting from each other when more than one interface is present.
To use the calculator below, input a values into the fields and hit the enter key. The result will appear below.
You can choose different input formats from the drop down menu.
This app note gives some good background for improving the accuracy of noise figure measurements.
Some noteworthy topics covered include: when to use a noise source with a larger or smaller ENR, choosing the appropriate measurement bandwidth, and factors to take into account when making measurements on frequency-conversion devices (mixers).
This book was featured on the Keysight RF Test blog with the following recommendation: "This book collects the essentials in one place, with the techniques, equations, explanations and examples that you’ll need to do the whole measurement job." The earliest version of this book appeared in the 1990's, the new edition has updates to cover recent developments such as "real-time" spectrum analyzers.
This blog explores various topics in RF test and measurement, from the latest equipment to best practice techniques to ensure consistent results and understand uncertainty limitations.
My name is Ben Zarlingo and I'm an applications specialist for Keysight Technologies. I've been an electrical engineer working in test & measurement for several decades now, mostly in signal analysis. For the past 20 years I've been involved primarily in wireless and other RF testing.
This app note briefly discusses ten different useful topics related to making VNA measurements.
From the table of contents:
HINT 1. Measuring high-power amplifiers
HINT 2. Compensating for time delay in cable measurements
HINT 3. Improving reflection measurements
HINT 4. Using frequency-offset for mixer, converter and tuner measurements
HINT 5. Increasing the accuracy of noninsertible device measurements
HINT 6. Aliasing in phase or delay format
HINT 7. Quick VNA calibration verification
This app note describes the techniques that can be used to measure devices requiring a high input signal level. Although the steps listed are specific to the E5072 ENA Network Analyzer, the concepts of using a configurable test set apply to other brands and models as well.
These slides from a webinar presentation give a detailed overview of the principles of measuring phase noise. The underlying relationships between phase noise spectral energy, demodulated phase noise, frequency etc. are described. The presentation also includes a description of the "modern" definition of phase noise along with current measurement techniques.
These seminar notes give a good discussion of the principles of phase noise. Specifically the authors describe the difference between measuring phase noise directly or using phase/frequency demodulation techniques. The notes describe details about the limitations and equipment performance requirements for making phase noise measurements using a variety of techniques. Since these notes are from an older archive, the latest techniques involving the use of correlation are not described.